Mental Health of Health Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic



Lusiana Ambarsari (Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta) Orcid ID
Dwi Ernawati (Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta)


Every day medical health workers have to face a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and long work shifts. This can cause psychological problems for health workers because the level of anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty increases during the pandemic. This study aims to determine the mental health of health workers during COVID-19. The method used was a scoping review which was carried out by identifying and developing the focus of the review, identifying relevant studies, mapping data with PRISMA Flowcharts, compiling data extraction, making summaries, and reporting the results and discussions that have been made. Based on the results of the search and screening conducted, there were 12 relevant articles. The identification results showed 3 themes, namely mental health disorders of health workers, factors that affectted the mental health of health workers, and coping strategies carried out by health workers in dealing with COVID-19. The conclusion is that mental health disorders experienced by health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic were Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety (anxiety), depression, insomnia, burnout (fatigue), and stress so that health workers need coping strategies in dealing with these situations.


COVID-19, Health worker, Mental health

Full Text:



AlAteeq, D. A., Aljhani, S., Althiyabi, I., & Majzoub, S. (2020). Mental health among healthcare providers during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(10), 1432–1437.

Burki, T. (2020). The origin of SARS-CoV-2. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1018–1019.

Cai, H., Tu, B., Ma, J., Chen, L., Fu, L., Jiang, Y., & Zhuang, Q. (2020). Psychological impact and coping strategies of frontline medical staff in Hunan between January and March 2020 during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) in Hubei, China. Medical Science Monitor, 26, 1–16.

Chew, N. W. S., Lee, G. K. H., Tan, B. Y. Q., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Ngiam, N. J. H., Yeo, L. L. L., Ahmad, A., Ahmed Khan, F., Napolean Shanmugam, G., Sharma, A. K., Komalkumar, R. N., Meenakshi, P. V., Shah, K., Patel, B., Chan, B. P. L., Sunny, S., Chandra, B., Ong, J. J. Y., … Sharma, V. K. (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 88(April), 559–565.

Cipolotti, L., Chan, E., Murphy, P., van Harskamp, N., & Foley, J. A. (2020). Factors contributing to the distress, concerns, and needs of UK Neuroscience health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice.

Dinah, & Rahman, S. (2020). Gambaran Tingkat Kecemasan Perawat Saat Pandemi Covid 19 Di Negara Berkembang Dan Negara Maju: a Literatur Review. Dinamika Kesehatan: Jurnal Kebidanan Dan Keperawatan, 11(1), 37–48.

Dyrbye, L. N., Shanafelt, T. D., Johnson, P. O., Johnson, L. A., Satele, D., & West, C. P. (2019). A cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between burnout, absenteeism, and job performance among American nurses. BMC Nursing, 18(1), 1–8.

Gorini, A., Fiabane, E., Sommaruga, M., Barbieri, S., Sottotetti, F., La Rovere, M. T., Tremoli, E., & Gabanelli, P. (2020). Mental health and risk perception among Italian healthcare workers during the second month of the Covid-19 pandemic. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 34(6), 537–544.

Grover, S., Singh, P., Sahoo, S., & Mehra, A. (2020). Stigma related to COVID-19 infection: Are the Health Care Workers stigmatizing their own colleagues? Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 53.

Hanggoro, A. Y., Suwarni, L., Selviana, & Mawardi. (2020). Dampak Psikologis Pandemi Covid-19 pada Tenaga Kesehatan: A Studi Cross-Sectional di Kota Pontianak. The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, 15(2), 1–12.

Hassannia, L., Taghizadeh, F., Moosazadeh, M., Zarghami, M., Taghizadeh, H., Dooki, A. F., Fathi, M., & Navaei, R. A. (2020). Epidemic in IRAN : A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study. MedRxiv, 0–2.

Hawker, S., Payne, S., Kerr, C., Hardey, M., & Powell, J. (2002). Appraising the evidence: Reviewing disparate data systematically. Qualitative Health Research, 12(9), 1284–1299.

Hira, H., & Amelia, T. (2020). HEALTHCARE WORKERS SECURITY : Jaminan, Regulasi, dan Sanksi. Khatulistiwa Law Review, 1(2), 38–39.

Kang, L., Li, Y., Hu, S., Chen, M., Yang, C., Yang, B. X., Wang, Y., Hu, J., Lai, J., Ma, X., Chen, J., Guan, L., Wang, G., Ma, H., & Liu, Z. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), e14.

Kaseda, E. T., & Levine, A. J. (2020). Post-traumatic stress disorder: A differential diagnostic consideration for COVID-19 survivors. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 34(7–8), 1498–1514.

Khanal, P., Devkota, N., Dahal, M., Paudel, K., & Joshi, D. (2020). Mental health impacts among health workers during COVID-19 in a low resource setting: A cross-sectional survey from Nepal. Globalization and Health, 16(1), 1–12.

Li, L., Sun, N., Fei, S., Yu, L., Chen, S., Yang, S., & Li, H. (2020). Current status of and factors influencing anxiety and depression in front-line medical staff supporting Wuhan in containing the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, October, 1–10.

Liang, L., Gao, T., Ren, H., Cao, R., Qin, Z., Hu, Y., Li, C., & Mei, S. (2020). Post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological distress in Chinese youths following the COVID-19 emergency. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(9), 1164–1175.

Liu, C. Y., Yang, Y. Z., Zhang, X. M., Xu, X., Dou, Q. L., Zhang, W. W., & Cheng, A. S. K. (2020). The prevalence and influencing factors in anxiety in medical workers fighting COVID-19 in China: A cross-sectional survey. Epidemiology and Infection, 148.

Liu, D., Liu, S., Zhu, L., Li, D., Huang, D., Deng, H., Guo, H., Huang, D., Liao, Y., Mao, Z., Miao, Q., Liu, W., Xiu, M., & Zhang, X. (2020). Prevalence and Related Factors of Insomnia Among Chinese Medical Staff in the Middle and Late Stage of COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(December), 1–7.

Liu, X., Kakade, M., Fuller, C. J., Fan, B., Fang, Y., Kong, J., Guan, Z., & Wu, P. (2012). Depression after exposure to stressful events: Lessons learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53(1), 15–23.

Luceño-Moreno, L., Talavera-Velasco, B., García-Albuerne, Y., & Martín-García, J. (2020). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, levels of resilience and burnout in spanish health personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 1–29.

Marinaci, T., Carpinelli, L., Venuleo, C., Savarese, G., & Cavallo, P. (2020). Emotional distress, psychosomatic symptoms and their relationship with institutional responses: A survey of Italian frontline medical staff during the Covid-19 pandemic. Frontiers Research Foundation, 6(December), e05766.

Munawar, K., & Choudhry, F. R. (2020). Exploring stress coping strategies of frontline emergency health workers dealing Covid-19 in Pakistan: A qualitative inquiry. American Journal of Infection Control, 000(January).

Nie, A., Su, X., Zhang, S., Guan, W., & Li, J. (2020). Psychological impact of COVID-19 outbreak on frontline nurses: A cross-sectional survey study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(21–22), 4217–4226.

Pham, M. T., Rajic, A., Greig, J. D., Sargeant, J. M., Papadopoulos, A., & McEwen, S. tA. (2014). A Scoping Review of Scoping Reviews: Advancing the Approach and Enhancing the Consistency. Research Synthesis Methods, 5(4), 371–385.

Pirutinsky, S., Cherniak, A. D., & Rosmarin, D. H. (2020). COVID-19, Mental Health, and Religious Coping Among American Orthodox Jews. Journal of Religion and Health, 59(5), 2288–2301.

Raudenská, J., Steinerová, V., Javůrková, A., Urits, I., Kaye, A. D., Viswanath, O., & Varrassi, G. (2020). Occupational burnout syndrome and post-traumatic stress among healthcare professionals during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 34(3), 553–560.

Roy, D., Tripathy, S., Kar, S. K., Sharma, N., Verma, S. K., & Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(April), 102083.

Sandesh, R., Shahid, W., Dev, K., Mandhan, N., Shankar, P., Shaikh, A., & Rizwan, A. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Healthcare Professionals in Pakistan. Cureus, 12(7), 3–7.

Talaee, N., Varahram, M., Jamaati, H., Salimi, A., Attarchi, M., Dizaj, M. K., Sadr, M., Hassani, S., Farzanegan, B., Monjazeb, F., & Seyedmehdi, S. M. (2020). Stress and burnout in health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic: validation of a questionnaire. Journal of Public Health (Germany)[revista en Internet] 2020 [acceso 20 de setiembre del 2020]. Journal of Public Health: From Theory to Practice, 1–6.

Teng, Z., Wei, Z., Qiu, Y., Tan, Y., Chen, J., Tang, H., Wu, H., Wu, R., & Huang, J. (2020). Psychological status and fatigue of frontline staff two months after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in China: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 275, 247–252.

Than, H. M., Nong, V. M., Nguyen, C. T., Dong, K. P., Ngo, H. T., Doan, T. T., Do, N. T., Nguyen, T. H. T., Van Do, T., Dao, C. X., Nguyen, T. Q., Pham, T. N., & Do, C. D. (2020). Mental health and health-related quality-of-life outcomes among frontline health workers during the peak of covid-19 outbreak in Vietnam: A cross-sectional study. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 13, 2927–2936.

Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K., Colquhoun, H., Kastner, M., Levac, D., Ng, C., Sharpe, J. P., Wilson, K., Kenny, M., Warren, R., Wilson, C., Stelfox, H. T., & Straus, S. E. (2016). A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16(1), 1–10.

Tsehay, M., Belete, A., & Necho, M. (2020). Factors associated with psychological distress and brief resilient coping level during the covid-19 pandemic among health-care professionals in dessie, ethiopia. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13(December), 1213–1221.

Vizheh, M., Qorbani, M., Arzaghi, S. M., Muhidin, S., Javanmard, Z., & Esmaeili, M. (2020). The mental health of healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders.

Wang, Z., Qiang, W., & Ke, H. (2020). A Handbook of 2019-nCoV Pneumonia Control and Prevention. In Hubei Science and technology press.

WHO. (2020). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard.

Wright, H. M., Griffin, B. J., Shoji, K., Love, T. M., Langenecker, S. A., Benight, C. C., & Smith, A. J. (2020). Pandemic-related mental health risk among front line personnel. Journal of Psychiatric Research, August.

Yitayih, Y., Mekonen, S., Zeynudin, A., Mengistie, E., & Ambelu, A. (2021). Mental health of healthcare professionals during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. BJPsych Open, 7(1), 1–6.

Article Metrics

This article has been read : 175 times
PDF file viewed/downloaded : 92 times

Copyright & License

Copyright (c) 2021 Lusiana Ambarsari, Dwi Ernawati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Published by:
Undergraduate Program of Midwifery
Faculty of Medicine - Universitas Andalas - Indonesia
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.